The Annotation — The Expense Account of Two 1830s Cattle Drovers

Yesterday’s transcription, The Expense Account of Two 1830s Cattle Drovers, offered a fascinating glimpse into the partnership between my great to the third grandfather, John P. Minor, and Lot Lantz.  As with my checkbook today, I reviewed the ledger’s figures with a scattered focus.  Does all of this accounting add up?  Meh!  Close enough!

The real family dirt was in the places named: Bull Town; William Brown’s farm in Preston County, Virginia; Caremont Tavern.  Where did these fellas travel?  How did they get the cattle from point A to point B?  Where was point A?

Both John P. Minor and Lot Lantz were residents of Greene County, in the far southwest corner of Pennsylvania; their names and place of residence appear in multiple federal censuses and several family papers housed in my Minor Satchel File.  Bull Town is in what is now known as Braxton County, West Virginia and Preston County is just to the north and east of Braxton County. What connected southwest Pennsylvania and mid-state (West) Virginia in 1832?


Mail routes.


From the collection of David Rumsey Historical Maps

Every map I have located for the first half of the nineteenth century includes the southwest corner of Pennsylvania in the map of Virginia.  The water ways, rail roads and roads connected the western counties of Virginia to Pennsylvania forming strong economic and cultural ties for many decades.

The Monogehela River and its tributary, the Cheat River, may have been one means of traveling into Preston County.  Or perhaps Minor and Lantz drove cattle down the one horse sulkey road from Waynesburg, Pennsylvania to Morgantown, (West) Virginia to Kingswood, Preston County, (West) Virginia.

At Kingswood the two drovers could have traveled on the Three Fork Road, the day’s interstate highway.  That 2 horse stage coach road would take the men and their cattle through Bridgeport to Clarksburg, Harrison County, (West) Virginia. From that point smaller roads, just one horse sulkey wide, would connect the businessmen with markets in Bull Town.

Travel through the mountains of western Virginia must have been arduous.  I am still trying to wrap my brain around the concept of driving 22 head of cattle or 145 head of cattle along roads shared with mail coaches, farmers and peddlers.  Did they use dogs to help move their merchandise along? Where did they stop to water and feed their cattle?  How long was the average drive?

Cattle drovers were often men of substance in their communities, helping farmers move their animals to distant markets.  John P. Minor was just one of these businessmen, and I am grateful that his descendants have kept the details of his transactions.

Amanuensis Monday: The Expense Account of Two 1830’s Cattle Drovers

A hearty thank you to John Newmark at Transylvanian Dutch, creator of Amanuensis Monday, for the gentle nudge to keep transcribing those family documents.

The yellowed paper was creased and worn, but the 179 year old ink was as black as the note I penned last week to my daughter.

20th of September 1832
John P Minor has Money on hand
of the 2nd drove————————————————————–$2118.50
out of this sum we owe to Bank
       now ———————————————————$800.00 
      To Wm Gray————————————————-$103.00
      To Coburn —————————————————$74.00 
      To Brown } Sandy Creek ——————————–$485.00
………………………………………………………………………..$1462.00  $1462.00

Minor shoes and whip $243…
and a settlement with D South may change the
matter a little there items to  ?  hereafter.  
Lot Lantz (signature)
John P Minor (signature)
 A note in the margin was added on 21st September 1832 declaring the debts paid. 
The author turned the paper upside down to further document his accounting:
Sale of 145 hed (sic) cattle to Rogers
2nd drove 10th Sept 1832 for—————————$2125.00
3 sold on the road———————————————-45.00
1 ditto ————————————————————13.00
2 ditto sold that were left out of the first drove and 2 left again and drove which equals the 2 first————————————————21.00
money counted $2118.50
had when started—20.00
money owe to bank————————————$800
To Brown————————————————–485
To Wm Gray———————————————-103
To Coburn————————————————-74
The settling up of affairs was continued on the back of the document:
Preston County V_a  at Wm Browns
September 27th 1832
     This day the within amount has been examined and settled and the partner shift money on hands stands thus. John P. Minor pays Wm Gray $3 and has fifty three dollars and 43 1/2 cents Lot Lantz has five hundred dollars. 
Lot Lantz (signature)
John P Minor (signature)
15th of October 1832 at Cases tavern in the Evening out of the above $500 Lot Lantz has paid for cattle at and near Bull Town 22 head and expense in all ——$190.62 1/2
Paid bills up untill this evening including all expenc since at Bull Town and to Walter Lurees paid by L Lantz—————————————————-$19.06 1/4
$209.68 3/4  taken from the above $500———leaves…………….$209.68 3/4
Lot Lantz indebted———————————————————-290.31 3/4
at Caremont taven John P Minor put into the expence funds the above $53.43 3/4 and Lot Lantz has put in to the expence funds $40.31 1/4 cents which leaves Lantz indebted $250.00
and Minor is square on this paper 
Lot Lantz (signature)
John P Minor (signature)*
*The signature of John P Minor is consistent with the handwriting of the name within the document, leading this researcher to conclude that the author of The Expence Account of Two Cattle Drovers is none other than John P. Minor. 

A Minor Detail: Amanuensis Monday

I threw off two quilts and a down comforter this morning, and leapt to my feet.  Hurriedly I dressed into chore clothes and padded stockinged-footed downstairs to make coffee.  The dogs sleepily rose from their beds to gather their morning pats before groggily making their way outside for the day’s first potty trip.  The damp March air filled my lungs with both the early smells of earth’s warming and of clouds holding snow.  We in northeastern Pennsylvania still sit on the edge of spring, with wintry conditions hovering.  I whistled the dogs back inside.  They listened impatiently as the kibble clinked into their bowls, paused in their down positions before being released with my “Rise and shine” command.  As Cappy, Fly and Luci wolfed down their breakfast my coffee steeped; finally I pushed the plunger of the French Press, and poured a mug of strong, bold brew lightened with a generous slug of cream.  The house was empty and still, NPR talking in the background, the computer screen an eerie glow in the dawn lit kitchen just waiting to transmit the bits and bytes from my trans-Atlantic children.

How different was the dawn for my great-great-great-grandmother, Isabelle McClelland Minor.  When Isabelle was my age, she had five grown kids, married with children of their own; and five kids still living at home, the youngest just 11 years old.  Her wake up time would not have been so peaceful or languid, and her breakfast chores would certainly have required more effort than pouring kibble into a bowl.  On the morning in 1855 that she and John P finally gave the Harrison County, Virginia land over to eldest son Abia Minor, Isabelle probably finished a bunch of chores by the time light broke over the farm in Greene County, Pennsylvania.  Hopefully the May air was sweet with the smells of a first cut of hay and with the endless song of birds waking to feed nestlings.  Did Isabelle feel satisfied to be off the farm for the day?  How much say did she have about this transaction?  Was she pleased to make this provision for her eldest boy’s family?

The land on which Abia Minor farmed from the mid-1840s through the 1850s.

Abia Minor, for his part, had lived on the Harrison County farm since at least 1845, and had six children by 1853, the year he lost his wife, Elizabeth.  He had remarried, taking Hannah Ballard as his wife, only four months before his parents went to James Cree and Alexander Stephenson to draw up this document.  At almost forty years of age, Abia must have felt that this Minor detail was long overdue.

This Indenture made the Eleventh day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight Hundred and fifty five Between John P Minor of Green County and State of Pennsylvania and Isabel His wife of the one part and Abiah Minor of Harrison County and State of Virginia of the other part Witnesseth that the said John P Minor and Isabel his wife for and in consideration of his share of a tract of Land willed to him the said Abiah Minor by Robert Mc Clelland deceased it being valued at twelve Hundred dollars the receipt whereof is hereby acknoledged (sic) and for other reasons and in Liew of Legacy*¹ do Hereby grant bargain sell convey and confirm unto the said Abiah Minor his heirs and assignee for Ever all that tract or parcel of Land situate lying and being in the County of Harison (sic) in the State of Virginia and bounded as follows Beginning at a Shugartree (sic) and of the original Corners of the Lowther Survey also a Corner to Land belonging to Solomon Holland thense (sic) by Lands of Said Holland North 81 E 22 perches to a corner thense (sic) south by Land of Same 28 E 76 perches to a corner on the creek thense (sic) up said creek 13 ¼ perches to a corner thense (sic) North 25 ½ E54 perches to a post on the division line between Abia Minor and Robert Minor thense (sic) North 20 ¾ E 90 perches to a stake on said line thense (sic) by the same Course 66½ perches to a Stone near to a whiteoak thense (sic) on a Northern direction to a stone on the original Line 162 ½ perches thense (sic)  South 27 W 53 ½ perches to a Stone in the old line thense (sic) South 10 West 11 perches and 15 links to a Black oak Near to a Cole (sic) Bank thense (sic) South 16¾ East 96½ perches to a Beech thense (sic) South 8½ West 28¼ to a whiteoak thense (sic) South 12 W26½ perches to a Stake near the mouth of the run*² thense (sic)  S 10 W 24 perches to a sugar tree place of beginning containing one Hundred and sixty acres, it being a part of a sirvey (sic) of Land Deeded to the party of the first part by deeds of James P Wilson bairing (sic)  dates 19th october 1841 and 31st March 1842 and recorded in Book No 29 folio 486 and in deed Book No 29 folio 681 in Harison (sic) county State of Virginia as Shown by the cirtificate (sic) of the Clerk of Said county Referance thereunto being had will more fully appear together with all and singular other the the houses out houses buildings barns stables ways roads waters water courses rights libertys priviledges hereditaments and appertenances whatsoever thereunto belonging or in anywise appertaining  (Except the wright (sic) of a way for the benafit (sic)of the upper or remaining part of the aforesaid Survey to get out to the road.) and the reversion and remainders rents issues and proppert??thereof and also all the Estate right title interest property clause and demand whatsoever of them the said John P Minor and Isabel his wife in law with equity or other wis however of in to or out of the same To have and to hold the said (several words unreadable) containing one hundred and sixty acres hereditaments and premises hereby granted or intended so to be with the appertenances unto the said Abia Minor his heirs and assigns to the only proper use and behoof of the said Abiah Minor his heirs and assigns for ever and the said John P mInor and Isabel his wife do covenant and agree to the said Abiah Minor to warant (sic) and forever defend from all persons Lawfully claims rising under them interest or title to the aforesaid premises In witness whereof the Said John P Minor and Isabel his wife have hereunto set their hands and seals this day and year first above  written.

*¹Abia did not receive any other land or money in the settlement of John P. Minor’s estate.

*² The run mentioned in this document refers to what is known in the 1841 and 1842 documents as Limestone Run, which emptied into Simpsons Creek.

Mapping the Wilson-Minor Transactions: Mappy Monday

Drawn on thin paper discolored to a light blue, the survey map described a distinct parcel of land with corners marked by Black Oak, Water Beech, Limestones, fence posts, stakes, and Hickories.  Lines connected the corners and were labeled with surveying code–S37 W 151/2 poles and the like.  Unnamed squiggly lines posed as small streams crossing the land, emptying into an unnamed creek boundary. Lines cut the map into pieces; within one rectangle was the name A. Minor, within another the name R. Minor.  The outside bore a cryptic “plot of Virginia land 575.”

Five hundred and seventy-five was the amount of land that John P. Minor purchased from James P. Wilson in 1841 and 1842.  As I reread those deeds I traced my finger along the lines of this map, and with great excitement realized that I did indeed have a map which depicted the Minor land acquisition of 1841 and 1842 in Harrison County, (West) Virginia!

Five Hundred Seventy-five Acres along Simpsons Creek

With that confirmed I could with great certainty know that the bigger stream indicated Simpson’s Creek, and the smaller streams were Limestone Run and Stout’s Run.  However, I still didn’t know when this map was created or where this parcel of land was on a current map.

unto the said Abia and Robert Minor their heirs and assigns for ever all that tract or parcel of land situate lying and being in the county of Harrison in the state of Virginia and bounded as follows

The 1849 document transferring a piece of this property to Abia and Robert Minor was never executed.  It was as if the boys had given John P. some reason to pause before deeding title. BUT the document gives a surveyor’s description of the considered transaction, and that plot is only the piece labeled R. Minor in this map–a clue that this map was created sometime AFTER 1849.  Other documents related to this land include John P. Minor deeding the tract of land labeled here A. Minor to Abia Minor in 1854. Therefore, I conclude that my surveyor’s map was created sometime between the years 1849 and 1854.

The when of the map was closer to being settled at this point, however I was left no closer to understanding where these 575 acres were located. For that I consulted  the Federal Census data hoping to track the residences of the young men.  My hunch was rewarded with an interesting trail.

1840                          Abia has a child and wife in Greene County, PA
Robert is not listed anywhere
1850                          Can’t find either Abia or Robert
1860                        Abia is in Moultrie County,Illinois
Robert is in Harrison County, Virginia
1870                         Abia is in Moultrie County, Illinois
Robert is in Harrison County, West Virginia
1880                        Abia is in Harper County, Kansas
Robert is in Harrison County, West Virginia

If Robert was on that land so long then searching for a map of that 1860-1880 era might yield some clues.

At Historic Map Works I did indeed find such a map–An Atlas of West Virginia, published by D. J. Lake and Company in 1886.   This map labeled not just towns and streams, but homes and businesses. I found Robert Minor’s name by a square that sat on a small stream, presumably Stout’s Run, that emptied into Simpson’s Creek north of Bridgeport.  Limestone Run had been renamed Barnet’s Run by 1886.  With these facts I could look at a Google map with new eyes and locate the ‘Plot Virginia Land 575’.

Limestone Run was renamed Barnet's Run by 1886, and the farms were covered by interstate and malls by 1986.

A mystery is solved, and leaves me with mixed emotions.  Now I know where my ancestor once walked; where, finding coal and water and good land for farming, John P. Minor expected to give his sons a great leg up in life.  Now I know that today’s parents walk from store to car, and drive home on streets and highways, on top of that land. They too expect to give their sons and daughters a leg up.

**With sixteen passes of the Flip Pal I had successfully scanned the map before me and stitched it together into a seamless jpeg file with the built in Stitch Tool.  Flip Pal. LOVE. IT.  Check it out here.

Bartering for Black Gold : amanuensis Monday

The unlined paper was folded in half, then in half again.  The resulting seven by three inch rectangle bore no identifying notation.   I have reread the Wilson-Minor Land transactions (see post 1, post 2, and post 3) several times since first spreading this undated agreement out on my work table.  The deep brown ink now yields a message which I understand.

John P. Minor purchased 350 acres on Simpsons Creek, Harrison County, (West) Virginia from James P. Wilson and wife Rowena on October 25, 1841 (post 2).  This letter appears to be laying out the terms of payment for an adjacent tract– the 223 acres on Simpsons Creek, Harrison County, (West) Virginia sold to John P. Minor by James P. Wilson and wife Rowena on April 1, 1842 (post 3).

–the said Miner bonds himself to pay for the said land at thirteen dollars per acre in the following payments one thousand dollars in current bank paper of Virginia on or before the first of April next (*1) also one bay horse at eighty dollars down and the balance till paid at three hundred dollars per year and the P. Wilson agrees to let the horse be included in the second yearly payment .  Both parties bind themselves their heirs to comply and said Wilson further agrees to make a good deed when called on and the P Miner is to execute his notes for said land.  Wilson is to make a general warrantee (sic) deed clear of all encumberances (sic) except the coal bank in testimony hereof the parties bind them selves their heirs  this 26th of Oct 1841.

Jas. P. Wilson
John P. Miner

PS  the land mentioned in this contract is to be used as the land bought in a former contract Miner is to have Wilsons interest in D. D. Wilsons coal bank on the hill P. Miner is to allow P Wilson the privilege of passing through his land to his the p Wilsons land lying above for all family purposes so wilson to keep up the gaps and not injure P Miner.

How interesting that this land is to be purchased with two forms of stored value–bank notes backed by the state of Virginia and a bay horse.  There was no national currency in 1841, and a hodgepodge of financial mechanisms and payment systems filled the vacuum. I am tempted to digress into the whole interplay of banking, bartering and currency issues of our antebellum nation, but I fear that that subject deserves its own blog–or several blog posts, at the very least.

It is also interesting to note the lack of convention in both spelling and punctuation. Though it makes for some tough reading, I believe by staying true to the original author I convey the message and provide a little clue about the  mental landscape in which our ancestors lived.

(*1)   1 April 1842.